Model K-12 Civics Code

Model Acts to Enhance K-12 Civics Education

Civics education cannot be reformed piecemeal. Proper civics education reform requires a larger reform of each state’s social studies curriculum, which includes civics education and history education as part of a larger, coherent whole. This larger reform should preserve what is valuable in each state’s existing laws, repeal laws that damage social studies instruction, and add new laws to strengthen civics and history education.

We have produced a Model K-12 Civics Code to cover the entire range of K-12 civics education legislation. We have based this Model Civics Code as much as possible on existing state laws, which we first gathered in our State Statutes webpage. It includes material on relatively uncontroversial material such as displaying the American flag—partly because existing legislation addresses such matters and partly because we fear such matters may soon become “controversial,” when they in turn become the target of radical activists. We also include recommendations for which state laws should be repealed in whole or in part. Our emphasis, however, is to provide civics education reformers in each state a coherent model for what civics education should be.

The first six model bills establish the civic foundations of public K-12 schools. They declare that public K-12 schools have a civic function (Civic Intent Act), that they should continue to teach students about our country’s civic symbols (Flag Code ActNational Anthem ActDocument Display Act) and holidays (Special Observances Act), and that they should provide character instruction (Character Instruction Act).

The next seven model bills establish a framework for proper K-12 social studies instruction. These bills include overall required social studies instruction (Social Studies Curriculum Act) and requirements for year-long high school courses in Civics (Civics Course Act), United States History (United States History Act), and Western Civilization (Western Civilization Act). They also include a requirement that students take a civics test as a graduation requirement (Civics Literacy Act) and that social studies classes use the historical documents of liberty (Historical Documents Act). A final model bill allows schools to offer nonsectarian instruction in the Bible, especially of its role in establishing America’s ideals of liberty (Religious Liberty Act).

The next five model bills remove Critical Race Theory and action civics from public K-12 schools. They remove Critical Race Theory and action civics from social studies classes (Partisanship Out of Civics Act), eliminate service-learning pedagogy entirely from public K-12 schools (Classroom Learning Act), prevent identity-politics distortions of the curriculum (Schools Nondiscrimination Act), and prevent public schools from grading students for their level of commitment to any value or attitude (Values Assessment Act). We also list the state statutes that authorize action civics, service learning, project-based assessment, and community service, and which should be repealed (Action Civics Repeal).

The next six model bills reform public school administration to ensure that education administrators comply with laws removing Critical Race Theory and action civics. These bills include a requirement to make publicly accessible both school documents (Academic Transparency Act) and school expenditures (Financial Transparency Act). They also prohibit school districts from doing business with contractors that discriminate by using Critical Race Theory policies (Contractor Nondiscrimination Act). Two model bills strengthen parental control over school boards by shifting school board election dates to the same day as the general election (School Board Election Date Act) and by establishing straightforward procedures by which to recall school board members (School Board Member Recall Act). Another model bill gives the state legislature and the governor the power to veto a state academic standard proposed by the Education Department (Legislative Review Act).

The final two model bills catalogue other existing civics education laws in the different states and say which should be repealed. We list miscellaneous laws dealing with civics instruction, which we neither oppose nor endorse (Neutral Laws), as well as laws dealing with civics instruction that ought to be repealed (Laws to be Repealed).

Among these model bills, the most important is the Partisanship Out of Civics Act (POCA), which bans action civics and the intellectual components of Critical Race Theory.

Our second priority is the Civics Course Act (CCA), which establishes a K-12 civics course, crafted so as to teach traditional civics and to avoid capture by action civics.

Once these priorities have been accomplished, we encourage civics education reformers to enact the entire Model K-12 Civics Code.

Civic Intent Act

The Civic Intent Act directs schools to craft curricula dedicated to the ideals of our constitutional republic, by means of patriotic rites, character instruction, knowledge of the documents of liberty, and instruction in American Government, United States History, and Western Civilization.

Flag Code Act

The Flag Code Act provides expectations for flag display, flag instruction, and the recitation of the pledge of allegiance. The Act grants students and teachers the liberty to refrain from taking part in the pledge of allegiance.

National Anthem Act

The National Anthem Act specifies expectations for learning and singing the national anthem, and for a program of instruction in its history and meaning. The Act grants students and teachers the liberty to refrain from taking part in the singing of the National Anthem.

Document Display Act

The Document Display Act directs that schools shall display documents such as the national motto and the Declaration of Independence and may display documents such as the Mayflower Compact and the State Constitution.

Special Observances Act

The Special Observances Act directs schools to provide programs of civic instruction keyed to ten patriotic holidays.

Character Instruction Act

The Character Instruction Act directs schools to provide a program of the character instruction necessary for civics education.

Social Studies Curriculum Act

The Social Studies Curriculum Act mandates K-12 instruction in Economics, State History, United States History, Civics, and Western Civilization.

Civics Course Act

The Civics Course Act mandates a year-long high school civics course, including requirements to study the primary documents of the American founding and bans on action civics and the components of Critical Race Theory.

Civics Literacy Act

The Civics Literacy Act requires high school students, as a condition of graduation, to pass the U.S. Civics Test given to immigrants who wish to be naturalized.

United States History Act

The United States History Act mandates a year-long high school United States History course, including requirements to study the primary documents of American history and bans on action civics and the components of Critical Race Theory.

Western Civilization Act

The Western Civilization Act mandates a year-long high school Western Civilization course, including requirements to study the primary documents of Western Civilization and bans on action civics and the components of Critical Race Theory.

Historical Documents Act

The Historical Documents Act mandates instruction in historical documents and the liberty to use historical documents.

Religious Liberty Act

The Religious Liberty Act authorizes a nonsectarian elective course in Bible Literacy and nonsectarian instruction in the Bible within other social science courses.

Partisanship Out of Civics Act

The Partisanship Out of Civics Act prevents teachers from giving credit to action civics or any other sort of public policy advocacy in history, government, civics, or social studies. It also bars civics classes from using the discriminatory ideology at the heart of Critical Race Theory.

Classroom Learning Act

The Classroom Learning Act eliminates service-learning pedagogy from public K-12 schools.

Action Civics Repeal

Action Civics Repeal lists the state statutes that authorize action civics, service learning, project-based assessment, and community service, and which should be repealed.

Schools Nondiscrimination Act

The Schools Nondiscrimination Act mandates that no one should be either included or excluded from our nation’s content standards, curricula, trainings, textbooks, and other school materials on account of their race, sex, or other group identity. This model bill also lists the state statutes that require or facilitate the imposition of radical identity-group ideology on the curriculum, and which should be repealed.

Values Assessment Act

The Values Assessment Act prohibits public schools from assessing, rewarding, or punishing students, teachers, or administrators for their level of commitment to any value or attitude.

Academic Transparency Act

The Academic Transparency Act requires public schools to publicize transparently every category of document relating to schools’ expenditures and procedures.

Legislative Review Act

The Legislative Review Act requires all existing academic standards, and all forthcoming revisions, to be submitted to the state legislature and the governor for review and possible veto.

Financial Transparency Act

The Financial Transparency Act requires school districts to post immediately on a public website a transparent, detailed financial statement that itemizes all expenditures.

Contractor Nondiscrimination Act

The Contractor Nondiscrimination Act requires contractors for school districts to prohibit the use of Critical Race Theory policies that require discrimination by race, sex, or other group identity.

School Board Election Date Act

The School Board Election Date Act shifts school board election dates to the same day as the general election.

School Board Member Recall Act

The School Board Member Recall Act establishes straightforward procedures by which to recall school board members.

Neutral Laws

Neutral Laws catalogs miscellaneous laws dealing with civics instruction, which we neither oppose nor endorse.

Laws to be Repealed

Laws to be Repealed catalogs miscellaneous laws dealing with civics instruction, which should be repealed.

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